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[[Documentation]] *Guards **Rules with a Guard The syntax of a rule with a guard is: >'''Head''' :- '''Guard''' | '''Body''' where '''Guard''' is a multiset of ''type constraints'' of the form: '''p'''($'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};). '''c'''($'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};). Type constraints put constraints on the shapes of processes Type constraints constrains the shapes of processes (or the names of unary atoms) with which the process contexts specified in its arguments can match. The ''type constraint name'' '''p''' is drawn from a built-in set and specifies which kind of constraints is imposed. received by the process contexts $'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};. The ''type constraint name'' '''c''' is drawn from a built-in set and specifies which kind of constraints is imposed. A constraint of the form ''uniq''($'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};) is also allowed. This is a control structure rather than a type constraint and used to avoid infinite rule application (see below). ***Examples Here is an example rule with guard: waitint(X), $p[X] :- int($p) | ok. This can be abbreviated to waitint($p) :- int($p) | ok. This rule can be thought of as an abbreviation of the following infinite number of rules: and can be thought of representing the following infinite number of rules: waitint(0) :- ok. waitint(1) :- ok. waitint(-1):- ok. waitint(2) :- ok. ... waitint(0) :- ok. waitint(1) :- ok. waitint(-1) :- ok. waitint(2) :- ok. waitint(-2) :- ok. ... The following list contains examples of some type constraints that can be written in '''Guard''': - int($p) --- specifies that $p must be an integer atom. - 4($p) --- specifies that $p must be a unary integer atom of value 4 (i.e., 4(X)). - $p < $q --- specifies that $p and $q are integer atoms such that the value of $p is less than that of $q. - $r = $p +. $q --- specifies that $p, $q, and $r are floating point number atoms such that the sum of the values of $p and $q is equal to the value of $r. ***Notes Each type constraint name (such as int or <) has its own mode of usage that specifies which of its arguments are input arguments. The effect of the constraint specified by a type constraint is enabled only after the shapes (or values) of its input arguments are all determined. For example, $r = $p + $q proceeds only when $p and $q are determined. The same abbreviation scheme as defined for atoms applies to type constraints when a process context name $'''p'''&size(10){'''k'''}; occurs exactly twice in the rule. For example, p($n) :- $n>$z, 0($z) | ok can be abbreviated to p($n) :- $n>0 | ok. **Typed Process Contexts A process context name $p constrained in '''Guard''' is said to be ''typed'' in that rule. As a syntactic sugar, typed process context names can be written as link names. For inscance, the above example can be written as: waitint(X) :- int(X) | ok. // ( Res = gen(N) :- N > 0 | Res = [N|gen(N-1)] ), p(gen(10)) A process context constrained in '''Guard''' is said to be a ''typed process context''. // As a syntactic sugar, // typed process context names can be written as link names. // For inscance, the above example can be written as: // waitint(X) :- int(X) | ok. // // ( Res = gen(N) :- N > 0 | Res = [N|gen(N-1)] ), p(gen(10)) // However, the original form, waitint($p) :- int($p) | ok, is preferred // because, unlike link names, typed process context names has no constraints // on the number of their occurrences. **Avoiding Infinite Rule Application A constraint of the form ''uniq''($'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};) succeeds if each $'''p'''&size(10){'''k'''}; is a '''ground''' structure (connected graph with exactly one free link; see below) and the rule has not been applied to the tuple $'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''}; before. As a special case of '''n'''=0, ''uniq'' succeeds if the rule in question has not been used before. The ''uniq''() test is a general tool for avoiding infinite application of rules whose right-hand side is a super(multi)set of the left-hand side. **Guard Library Currently, the following type constraints can be written in the guard. The + specifies an input argument. The following type constraints can be used in guards. The + (input) sign preceding a process context name means that the name should appear in the head, while the - (output) sign means that the name should not appear in the head. '='(+U1,-U2) - make sure that U1 and U2 are (connected to) unary atoms with the same name '='(-U1,+U2) - same as above '=='(+U1,+U2) - check if U1 and U2 are (connected to) unary atoms with the same name unary(+U) - check if U is (connected to) a unary atom ground(+G) - check if G is (connected to) a connected graph with exactly one free link (which is G) int(+I) - check if I is (connected to) an integer float(+F) - check if F is (connected to) a float int(+Float,-Int) - cast float(+Int,-Float) - cast 345(-Int) - defined for every integer (not only with 345) '-3.14'(-Float) - defined for every float '<'(+Int,+Int) - integer comparison; also: > =< >= =:= =\= '+'(+Int,+Int,-Int) - integer operation; also: - * / mod '<.'(+Float,+Float) - float comparison; also: >. =<. >=. =:=. =\=. '+.'(+Float,+Float,-Float) - float operation; also: -. *. /. uniq(+G1,...,+Gn) - uniqueness constraint; checks if the rule has not been applied to the tuple G1,...,Gn (n>=0) '='(+$u,-$v) - make sure that $u[X] and $v[Y] are unary atoms with the same name '='(-$u,+$v) - same as above '=='(+$u,+$v) - check if $u[X] and $v[Y] are unary atoms with the same name unary(+$u) - check if $u[X] is a unary atom ground(+$g) - check if $g[X1,...,Xn] (n>0) is a connected graph whose free links are exactly X1,...,Xn int(+$i) - check if $i[X] is an integer float(+$f) - check if $f[X] is a float int(+$float,-$int) - cast float(+$int,-$float) - cast 345(-$int) - defined for every integer (not only with 345) '-3.14'(-$float) - defined for every float '<'(+$int,+$int) - integer comparison; also: > =< >= =:= =\= '+'(+$int,+$int,-$int) - integer operation; also: - * / mod '<.'(+$float,+$float) - float comparison; also: >. =<. >=. =:=. =\=. '+.'(+$float,+$float,-$float) - float operation; also: -. *. /. uniq(+$g1,...,+$gn) - uniqueness constraint; checks if the rule has not been applied to the tuple $g1[X1], ..., $gn[Xn] (n>=0)