[[Documentation]]
#author("2017-03-02T16:49:19+09:00","default:LMNtal","LMNtal")
//[[Documentation]]

*Guards
*Guards [#v398323a]

**Rules with a Guard
**Rules with a Guard [#x7373323]

The full syntax of a rule is: ( '''Head''' :- ['''Guard''' | ] '''Body''' )
Guards specify applicability conditions of rewrite rules.  The syntax of a rule with a guard is:
>'''Head''' :- '''Guard''' | '''Body'''

where '''Guard''' is a multiset of ''type constraints'' of the form:
&math(p(\$p_1,\ldots,\$p_n));.
where '''Guard''' is a multiset of ''type constraints'' of the form
'''c'''($'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};).

Type constraints put constraints on the shapes of processes
Type constraints constrains the shapes of processes
(or the names of unary atoms)
with which the process contexts specified in its arguments can match.
The type constraint name &math(p); specifies the content of the constraints.
received by the process contexts $'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};.
The ''type constraint name'' '''c''' is drawn from a built-in set and specifies which kind of constraints is imposed.

For example, the following type constraints can be written in '''Guard''':
A constraint of the form ''uniq''($'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};) is
also allowed.  This is a control structure rather than a type constraint
and used to avoid infinite rule application (see below).

- int($p) --- specifies that $p must be an integer atom.
- 4($p) --- specifies that $p must be a unary integer atom of value 4.
- $p < $q --- specifies that $p and $q are integer atoms
***Examples [#oc28c486]

Here is an example rule with guard:

 waitint(X), $p[X] :- int($p) | ok.

This can be abbreviated to

 waitint($p) :- int($p) | ok.

and can be thought of representing the following infinite number of rules:

 waitint(0)  :- ok.
 waitint(1)  :- ok.
 waitint(-1) :- ok.
 waitint(2)  :- ok.
 waitint(-2) :- ok.
 ...

The following are examples of some type constraints that can be written in '''Guard''':

-&color(#8B4513){int($p)}; ... specifies that $p must be an integer atom.
-&color(#8B4513){4($p)}; ... specifies that $p must be a unary integer atom of value 4 (i.e., 4(X)).
-&color(#8B4513){$p < $q}; ... specifies that $p and $q are integer atoms
such that the value of $p is less than that of $q.
- $r = $p +. $q --- specifies that $p, $q, and $r are floating
point number atoms
such that the sum of the values of $p and $q is equal to the value of $r. 
-&color(#8B4513){$r = $p +. $q}; ... specifies that $p, $q, and $r are floating
point number atoms such that the sum of the values of $p and $q is equal to the value of $r. 

In reality, each type constraint name (such as int or <)
***Notes [#z6515d94]

Each type constraint name (such as int or <)
has its own mode of usage
that specifies which of its arguments are input arguments.
The effect of the constraint specified by a type constraint
is enabled only after the shapes (or values)
of its input arguments are all determined.
For example, $r = $p + $q proceeds only when $p and $q are determined.

The same abbreviation scheme as defined for atoms
applies to type constraints when a process context name &math(\$p_i);
occurs exactly two times in the rule.
For example, p($n):-$n>$z,0($z)|ok can be abbreviated
to p($n):-$n>0|ok.
applies to type constraints when a process context name
$'''p'''&size(10){'''k'''};
occurs exactly twice in the rule.
For example, p($n) :- $n>$z, 0($z) | ok can be abbreviated
to p($n) :- $n>0 | ok.

**Typed Process Contexts
**Typed Process Contexts [#z5d7f69f]

A process context name $p constrained in '''Guard'''
is said to be ''typed'' in that rule.
As a syntactic sugar,
typed process context names can be written as link names as follows:
A process context constrained in '''Guard'''
is said to be a ''typed process context''.
// As a syntactic sugar,
// typed process context names can be written as link names.
// For inscance, the above example can be written as:
//  waitint(X) :- int(X) | ok.
// // ( Res = gen(N) :- N > 0 | Res = [N|gen(N-1)] ), p(gen(10))
// However, the original form, waitint($p) :- int($p) | ok, is preferred
// because, unlike link names, typed process context names has no constraints
// on the number of their occurrences.

 ( Res = gen(N) :- N > 0 | Res = [N|gen(N-1)] ), p(gen(10))
**Avoiding Infinite Rule Application [#w149d3ab]

**Guard Library
A constraint of the form
''uniq''($'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};)
succeeds if each $'''p'''&size(10){'''k'''}; is a '''ground''' structure
(connected graph with exactly one free link; see below) 
and the rule has not
been applied to the tuple
$'''p'''&size(10){1};, ..., $'''p'''&size(10){'''n'''};
before.

Currently, the following type constraints can be written in the
guard. The + specifies an input argument.
As a special case of '''n'''=0,
''uniq'' succeeds if the rule in question has not been used
before.  The ''uniq''() test is a general tool for avoiding 
infinite application of rules whose right-hand side is a 
super(multi)set of the left-hand side.

 '='(+Unary,-Unary)         - equivalence
 '='(-Unary,+Unary)         - equivalence
 '=='(+Unary,+Unary)        - equivalence
 unary(+Unary)
 int(+Int)
 float(+Float)
 int(+Float,-Int)           - cast
 float(+Int,-Float)         - cast
 345(-Int)                  - for every integer,  not only with 345
 '-3.14'(-Float)            - for every floating, not only with -3.14
 '<'(+Int,+Int)             - integer comparison,  as well as: > =< >= =:= =\=
 '+'(+Int,+Int,-Int)        - integer operation,   as well as: - * / mod
 '<.'(+Float,+Float)        - floating comparison, as well as: >. =<. >=. =:=. =\=.
 '+.'(+Float,+Float,-Float) - floating operation,  as well as: -. *. /.

**Guard Library [#udf848a7]

The following type constraints can be used in guards.
The + (input) sign preceding a process context name means that the name should
appear in the head, while the - (output) sign means that the name should not
appear in the head.

***Type checking [#l78e805c]

:int(+$i)|check if $i[X] is an integer.
:float(+$f)|check if $f[X] is a floating-point number.
:unary(+$u)|check if $u[X] is a unary atom.  Note that ''int'' and ''float'' are subtypes of ''unary''.
:ground(+$g)|check if $g[X1,...,Xn] (n>0) is a connected graph whose free links are exactly X1,...,Xn.  Note that ''unary'' is a subtype of ''ground''.

***Comparison [#r7825264]

:'='(+$u,+$v)|check if $u[X1,...,Xn] and $v[Y1,...,Yn] are connected graphs with the same structure.
:'\='(+$u,+$v)|check if $u[X1,...,Xn] and $v[Y1,...,Ym] are connected graphs with different structures.
:'=='(+$u,+$v)|check if $u[X] and $v[Y] are unary atoms with the same name.
:'\=='(+$u,+$v)|check if $u[X] and $v[Y] are unary atoms with different names
(if either of them are not unary, the check fails.)
:'<.'(+$float,+$float)|float comparison;   also: ''&color(#8B4513){'>.'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'=<.'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'>=.'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'=:=.'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'=\=.'};''.
:'<'(+$int,+$int)|integer comparison; also: ''&color(#8B4513){'>'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'=<'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'>='};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'=:='};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'=\='};''.
***Assignment [#ne364170]

:'='(+$u,-$v)|make sure that $u[X] and $v[Y] are unary atoms with the same name.
:'='(-$u,+$v)|same as above.
:int(+$float,-$int)|cast to int.
:float(+$int,-$float)|cast to float.
:345(-$int)|defined for every integer (not only with 345).
:'-3.14'(-$float)|defined for every float.
:'+'(+$int,+$int,-$int)|integer operation;  also: ''&color(#8B4513){'-'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'*'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'/'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){mod};''.
:'+.'(+$float,+$float,-$float)|float operation;    also: ''&color(#8B4513){'-.'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'*.'};'', ''&color(#8B4513){'/.'};''.

***Others [#i37c8a7c]
:uniq(+$g1,...,+$gn)|uniqueness constraint; checks if the rule has not been applied to the tuple $g1[X1], ..., $gn[Xn] (n>=0).


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